Classification of Sounds

1. Vowel

According to Jones (1987:12) vowel is when the tongue takes up a vowel position, a resonance chamber is formed which modified the quality of produce by the voice, and give rise to a distinct quality or timber. Whereas, Dale, P and Lillian Poem (2005:4) state vowel is speech sound produced with vibrating vocal cord and a continuous unrestricted flow of air coming from the mouth. He also states some phonetic symbols for pure vowel, those are:

 

No Phoneme Words
Initial Cluster Final stop
1 / I : / Eat elite Sea
/ i:t / ei’li:t / / si: /
2 / I / Equip Sit Empty
/ Ikwip / / sIt / / emptI
3 / e / Else Pen
/ els / / pen /  
4 / æ / Axe Pan
/ æks / / pæn /  
5 / 3 : / Err Turn Occur
/ 3: ( r ) / / t3:n / ә’k3:( r ) /
6 / ә / Ago Annual Another
/ ә’gәư / / ænjuәl / / ә’nΛðә( r ) /
7 / a : / Answer Heart Bar
/ a:nsә( r ) / / ha:t / / ba:(r) /
8 / Λ / Up Hut
/ Λp / / HΛt /  
9 / u : / Ooze Pool Outdo
/ u:z / / Pu:l / / aưt’du: /
10 / u / Full To
  / Ful / / tu /
11 / כ: / Aural Port Thaw
/ כ:rәl / pכ:t / / ѳכ: /
12 / D / Often God
/ Dft / / GDd /  

2. Consonant

According to Suparman (2002:24) consonants is a sound, voiced and voiceless, in which the air stream is obstructed through a narrowing or complete closure of the mouth passage in the other words. The sound of a consonant depends on whether or not the vocal cords vibrate, where and how it is formed. The articulation of vowel is not accompanied by any closure or narrowing in the speech tract which would prevent the escape of the air stream through the mouth or give rise to audible friction; all other sounds (necessitating a closure or a narrowing which involves friction) are consonants (Gimson, 1980:32).

Consonant may be classified into voice consonant and voiceless consonant. A voiced consonant is a sound produced when the vocal cords are vibrating. While, voiceless consonants is a sound made with no vibration of the vocal cord (Dale and Lillian Poem, 2005:116).

2.1 Consonant Distribution

No Phoneme Words
Initial Cluster Final stop
1 / t∫ / Chin Kitchen Teach
/ c∫in / / kit∫әn / / ti:t∫ /
2 / ѳ / Threat Something Sloth
/ ѳret / / sΛmѳiη / / slәưѳ /
3 / ∫ / She Fruition Smash
/ ∫i: / / frui∫n / / smæ∫ /
4 / ð / Than either cloth
/ ðәn / / aiðә( r ) / / klәưð /
5 / d3 / Jumb Ingenious Siege
/ d3Λmp / / ind3i:niәs / / si:d3 /
6 / 3 / Pleasure Garage
  / ple3ә(r) / / gæra:3 /
7 / η / Hanger Song
  / hæηә( r ) / / SDη /
8 / b / Bus Label Stab
/ bΛs / / leibl / / stæb /
9 / P / Prove Replace Harp
/ pru:v / / ri’pleis / / ha:p /
10 / t / Tore Flatter Get
/ tכ:r / / flætә(r) / / get /
11 / d / Drain Accident Speed
/ drein / / æksidәnt / / spi:d /
12 / k / Cold Liquor Speck
/ kәưld / likә(r) / / spek /
13 / g / Goat Nugget Fag
/ gәưt / / nΛgit / / fæg /
14 / f / Feed Perfect Staff
/ fi:d / / p3:fikt / / sta:f /
15 / v / Vest favour Live
/ vest / / feivә( r )/ / li:v /
16 / s / Stress Trust Frivolous
/ stress / / trΛst / / frivәlәs /
17 / z / Zest Transit ease
/ zest / / trænzit / / I:z /
18 / m / Mine Zombie Harm
/ main / / zDmbi / / ha:m /
19 / n / Nettle Dandelion Dawn
/ netl / / dændilaiәn / / d כ:n /
20 / h / Happy Inhale
/ hæpi / / in’heil /  
21 / L / Limit Violate spell
/ limit / / vaiәlәnt / / spel /
22 / r / Ride Fry door
/ raid / / Fray / / dכ:r /
23 / w / Whale Unwind
/ weil / / Λnwaind /  
24 / j / Year Skewer
/ jlәr / / skju:ә( r ) /  

 

2.2. The Consonant Articulation

  Bilabial Labio dental Dental Alveolar Palato Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive P , b     t , d     k , g  
Affricative         t∫ , d3      
Nassal m     N     η  
Lateral       L     ( L )  
Rolled       ( r )        
Flapped       ( r )        
Fricative   F , v ѳ , ð s , z , r ∫ , 3     h
Semi vowel w         j ( w )  

 

3. Diphthongs

According to Dale and Lillian Poem (2005:4) diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds. It begins as one vowel and ends as another. Jones (1987: 22) says diphthong is when the sound is made by gliding from one vowel position to another. Diphthongs are represented phonetically by sequences of two letters, the first showing the starting point and the second indicating the direction of movement.

3.1. Centering Diphtong

No Phoneme Words
Initial Cluster Final stop
1 / ai / Ice File Applay
/ ais / / fail / / ә’plai /
2 / ei / Eight Praise Day
/ eit / / Preiz / / dei /
3 / כi / Oil Point Ploy
/ כil / / pכint / / plכi /
4 / au / Out Powder Prow
/ aut / / paudә( r ) / / prau /
5 / әu / Open Pose Burrow
/ әupәn / / pәuz / / bΛrәu /

 

 

3.2. Closing Diphthong

 

No Phoneme Words
Initial Cluster Final stop
1 / iә / Era Premier
/ iәrә /   / Premiә( r ) /
2 / uә / Poorly Hour
  / puәli / / әuә( r ) /
3 / eә / Daring Premiere
  / deәriη / / premieә( r ) /
4 / כә /
     

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